Egyptian economy depended mainly on agriculture .
After the Revolution the state focused its efforts
on industrialization . In accordance with cultural
development . Egypt welcomes Arab and foreign
investments and offers in the sphere various
facilities to Arab and foreign investors . Of the
most important beneficiary sectors of this economic
open door policy and investment is stimulation is
the tourism sector.
Egypt is probably the world's oldest civilization
having emerged from the Nile Valley around 7,000
years ago, historically.
Egypt is probably one of the oldest vacation spots.
Early Greeks, Romans and others went there just for
fun, and to see the wonders of some of mankind's
But Egypt is much more than Pyramids and monuments.
It is also Red Sea scuba diving, hot night spots,
luxury hotels and five star restaurants. It's
romantic cruises down the Nile on festive river
boats, a night at the grand opera and it is a
cultural experience like none you have ever
experienced. Egypt is a land bustling with life,
sound, visual beauty and excitement.
More than anything else, we want you to think of
Egypt as fun. For thousands of years, it has been
the playground of emperors and kings, and we hope
you will take the time to find out why.
The official language is Arabic , English and French
are also spoken as second languages .
1,002,000 sq km (386,874 sq miles).
67,886,000 (official estimate 2001).
67.8 per sq km.
Cairo (El Qahira). Population: 7,388,000 (official
Egypt is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean,
to the south by Sudan, to the west by Libya, and to
the east by the Red Sea and Israel. The River Nile
divides the country unevenly in two, while the Suez
Canal provides a third division with the Sinai
Peninsula. Beyond the highly cultivated Nile Valley
and Delta, a lush green tadpole of land that holds
more than 90 per cent of the population, the
landscape is mainly flat desert, devoid of
vegetation apart from the few oases that have
persisted in the once fertile depressions of the
Western Desert. Narrow strips are inhabited on the
Mediterranean coast and on the African Red Sea
coast. The coast south of Suez has fine beaches and
the coral reefs just offshore attract many divers.
The High Dam at Aswan now controls the annual floods
that once put much of the Nile Valley under water;
it also provides electricity.
The northern border is the Mediterranean Sea and the
southern boundary is with Sudan. On the northeastern
border is Israel, Jordan, Palestine and Saudi
Arabia. The Red Sea flanks the eastern border, while
the whole of the western border is with Lybia.
Republic. Head of State: President Muhammad Hosni
Mubarak since 1981. Head of Government: Ahmed Nazif
The 454-member Majlis al-Sha’ab (People’s Assembly),
which functions as the legislature, nominates the
President; the nomination is endorsed by popular
referendum. The president, who serves a six-year
term, has executive power and appoints one or more
Vice Presidents, a Prime Minister and a Council of
Ministers. The Majlis al-Sha’ab is elected for a
five-year term. There is also a 210-member advisory
assembly, the Majlis ash-Shura
According to the 1986 census, over 94 per cent of
the population follows Islam; the majority of the
rest is Christian. All types of Christianity are
represented, especially the Coptic Christian Church.
There is also a small Jewish minority.
GMT + 2 (GMT + 3 from May to September).
Most areas 220 volts AC, 50Hz. Certain rural parts
still use 110 to 380 volts AC.
Full IDD is available. Country code: 20. Outgoing
international code: 00.
GSM Coverage is limited to Cairo, Alexandria
and along the north coast line of the Red Sea from
Suez to Sharm el-Sheikh and the major towns along
the Nile. Network operators include ECMS-MobiNil
(website: www.mobinil.com ) and Vodafone Egypt
Telecommunications (website: www.vodafone.com.eg ).
All of the hotels in Cairo have introduced fax
facilities; check with the hotel concerned before
Tourists wont face any problem getting online in
Egypt, every cornet you will find out internet
access whether in hotels or Internet Cafes.
The postal system is efficient for international
mail. Airmail takes about five days to western
Europe, and eight to 10 days to the USA. There are
facilities at the Central Post Office; a small fee
is charged when mail is collected. All post offices
are open daily 08:30-15:00 except Friday, and the
Central Post Office in Cairo is open 24 hours.
The most influential Egyptian daily is Al-Ahram;
others include Al-Akhbar and several weekly and
periodical publications. Two daily newspapers – Le
Journal d’Alexandrie and Le Progrès Egyptian – are
published in French. The English-language daily
newspaper is the Egyptian Gazette. The Middle East
Observer is the main weekly English-language
BBC World Service (website:
www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice ) and Voice of
www.voa.gov ) and also Nile FM (website:
www.nilefmonline.com )can be received.
From time to time the frequencies change and the
most up-to-date can be found online
The deserts of Egypt comprise over 90 percent of the
land surface but are inhabited by around 5 percent
of the population.
The deserts are part of an arid region that
stretches from the Atlantic coast in the west to
Central Asia in the east.
The Eastern or Arabian Desert is east of the Nile
Valley and extends to the Red Sea. It is far higher
than the Western Desert, rising to a series of
ranges, parallel to the sea, called the Red Sea
Mountains. It is approximately 86,101 square miles
(223,000 square km), or 21 percent of the land mass
of Egypt. The Arabian Desert has two distinct areas,
the northern Al Maaza Plateau, composed primarily of
limestone, and the southern Al' Ababda Plateau.
Water is very scarce in these areas.
The Western or Libyan Desert is much larger than the
Arabian Desert, covering 332,434 square miles
(681,000 square km) and comprises two thirds of
Egypt. It is separated from the North African or
Great Sahara by highlands and is composed primarily
of Nubian sandstone and limestone. South of the
Qattarah depression there is a band of north-south
sand dunes that continue as far south as the Kharga
Depression, where they flatten out. The Western
Desert is the most arid region of Egypt.
Sinai and the Red Sea
The Sinai peninsula juts into the Red Sea creating
the Gulf of Aqaba on the east and the Gulf of Suez
on the west.
It is 38,125 square miles (61,000 square km) in area
( 6 percent of Egypt) with the desert in the north
and granite mountains in the south. Its highest
mountain peak is Gebel Katrina at 8,715 feet (2,641
meters). The central part of Sinai is the Tie
The Red Sea
The Red Sea is 7,785 feet (2,359 meters) deep, 1,207
miles (1,932 km) long from north to south and 191
miles (306 km) from east to west. Cutting through
the Gulf of Aqaba from the Dead Sea and continuing
south through the Red Sea and on into East Africa is
the Great Rift Valley, the juncture of the African
and Arabian Tectonic plates. The Red Sea is highly
saline with small tides and exquisite coral shelves
There are six inhabited depressions in the deserts
of Egypt. The Al-Kharga Oasis Depression is west of
the Nile Valley town of Asyut and joined to it by a
roadway. Evidence of tectonic plate movement can be
seen in the escarpment walls. North to south the
depression is 115 miles (185 km), east to west 9-18
miles (15-30 km). Only 1 percent of the total area
is cultivated. One of the most distinctive features
of the Kharga Oasis Depression is the escarpment
that one must descend before arriving at the town of
The two seas that border Egypt in the north and east
have left a string of five saltwater lakes across
the northern border of Sinai and the Nile
delta basin; Lake Bardawil in Sinai; Lake Manzalah,
the largest of the northern lakes; Lake Burulls;
Lake Idku, west of Alexandria; and Lake Maryut, the
only lake of the five not directly connected to the
sea by a natural channel.
The longest river in the world, it is about
4,160mi(6,693 km) long from its remotest headstream
and 3,473mi (5,588 km) from Lake Victoria to the
The first use of the Nile for irrigation in Egypt
began when seeds were sown in the mud left after its
annual flood waters had subsided. It has supported
continuous human settlement for at least 5,000
years, with canals and waterworks built in the 19th
The Nile is also a vital waterway for the transport
of people and goods.
Lower Nile Valley (from El-Minya to El-Minya)
This area of the Nile River Valley contains a
considerable mix of Christian and Coptic, Greek and
Pharaonic historical sites, particularly due to its
close proximity to the Fayoum Oasis.
Upper Nile Valley (from South of El-Minya to Qena)
This area of the Nile River Valley represents the
Northern region of Upper Egypt (Southern). It is
interesting from the standpoint that the area
contains some of the oldest artifacts and the
capital of the Old Kingdom, but also has a rich
Christian and Islamic tradition